Cholelithiasis is a condition in which hard stones composed of cholesterol or bile pigments form in the gallbladder cholecystolithiasis or common bile duct choledocholithiasis. Most stones are composed of cholesterol. In bile, cholesterol is in equilibrium with bile salts and phosphatidylcholine. When the concentration of cholesterol rises to the point of supersaturation, crystallization occurs. A sludge containing cholesterol, mucin, calcium salts, and bilirubin forms, and, ultimately, stones develop. Chronic obstruction may result in cholecystitis infection and inflammation of the gallbladder or cholangitis infection and inflammation of the common bile duct. Both syndromes are serious and, if untreated, may result in sepsis, shock, and death. Presenting symptoms include episodic right-upper-quadrant or epigastric pain, which often occurs in the middle of the night after eating a large meal and may radiate to the back, right scapula, or right shoulder. Diaphoresis, nausea, vomiting, dyspepsia, burping, and food intolerance especially to fatty, greasy, or fried foods; meats; and cheeses are common. More severe symptoms, including fever and jaundice, may signify cholecystitis or cholangitis.
We acknowledge Susan Murray, Royal College of Physicians London, for support in initiating the review and the University of Hertfordshire for the provision of technical support, including computer support and access to literature. Literature searching for randomized controlled trials used in Cochrane reviews: rapid versus exhaustive searches. Dietary habits of gallstone patients in Northern India. Diet as a risk factor for cholesterol gallstone disease. Editor’s note Jul – Dr Hayley Willacy has read a study by researchers at Nuffield Department of Population Health at the University of Oxford on vegetarianism and gallstone disease – see below. We will identify other relevant studies by searching reference lists of identified trials and conference proceedings. Second, measurement errors were inevitable because dietary intake was assessed using FFQ which might have led to underestimation of associations. Changes in enterohepatic cycling of bile salts increases risk of gallstone formation.
Occasionally, just one large stone is formed. In: Barnard ND, ed. High risk of bias: any of the following: no blinding or incomplete blinding, and the outcome is likely to be influenced by lack of blinding; or blinding of key study participants and personnel attempted, but likely that the blinding could have been broken, and the outcome is likely to be influenced by lack of blinding. If different scales are used to measure the same outcome, we will present the standardised mean difference. Wednesday, June 3, AM. Full Calendar. BMC Gastroenterol. In addition, changes in cholesterol metabolism could reduce the biliary cholesterol saturation and biliary protein concentration Effect of diets and drugs on biliary cholesterol secretion in man. It has been shown that obese women on a weight-control diet, who take fish-oil supplements, will not experience cholesterol nucleation and gallstone disease as a result of weight loss compared to the control group Compared to traditional analyses of single foods and nutrients, factor analysis has emerged as a method for comprehensive estimation of disease risk